Wolf - Canis lupus

Wolf facts

Size

Males 20 - 60 kg
Females 15 - 55 kg

Reproduction
Mating: January - March
Birth: March - May
Litter size: 1 - 11

Diet
Mainly carnivorous, specialised in wild ungulates, but can also feed on small and medium sized vertebrates, invertebrates, fruits, carrion and human garbage, as well as livestock.

Social organisation
Group living in packs, normally with only two reproductive animals. Wolf packs are territorial.

Home ranges

100 to 1000 km2

Wolf. Photo J. Linnell
Wolf - Canis lupus. Photo © John Linnell/NINA

Threats:

(1) Some populations (e.g. Germany, southern Spain, Scandinavia) are small and isolated, and are therefore at risk.

(2) Human tolerance is often very low, especially in areas where wolves return after an absence. Their depredation on livestock, competition with hunters for wild ungulates, create obvious conflicts. People often fear wolves, and in many cases wolves become symbols of a range of other conflicts between rural and urban areas.

(3) Human caused mortality is the most important factor affecting wolves, from poaching and hunting. It is vital to combat poaching and ensure that hunting and lethal control are kept within sustainable limits.

Distribution:

 

Population name

Countries

Size (c. 2012)

Trend

Scandinavian

Norway, Sweden

260-330

Increase

Karelian

Finland

150-165

Decrease

Baltic

Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland

870-1400

Stable to increase

Central European lowlands

Germany, Poland

36 packs

Increase

Carpathian

Slovakia, Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Hungary, Serbia

3000

Stable?

Dinaric-Balkan

Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Montenegro, "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia", Albania, Serbia (incl. Kosovo*), Greece, Bulgaria

3900

Stable?

Alps

Italy, France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia

280

Increase

Italian peninsula

Italy

600-800

Stable

NW Iberian

Spain, Portugal

No recent update, but 2007 estimate was 2500

Decrease?

Sierra Morena

Spain

1 pack

Decrease