The main identified threats are legal culling, deliberate illegal killing and indiscriminate poisoning. Traffic accidents are also important throughout the species range. Local changes in animal husbandry and waste management may locally reduce anthropogenic resource availability and agricultural intensification may reduce necessary habitat cover. Despite these threats, the species is very successful in human-dominated landscapes.
There is little precise data on jackal numbers, but experts estimate that the European population is likely to be between 97,000 and 117,000 individuals. Jackals are currently expanding into central and western Europe.